indonesia

Indonesia

Last official update: January 14, 2021

Human Rights

HRMI

Quality of Life rights (or ‘economic and social rights’) include the rights to food, health, education, housing, and work. Indonesia scores 66.7% on Quality of Life when scored against the ‘Income adjusted’ benchmark. This score takes into account Indonesia’s resources and how well it is using them to make sure its people’s Quality of Life rights are fulfilled.

This score tells us that Indonesia is only doing 66.7% of what should be possible right now with the resources it has. Since anything less than 100% indicates that a country is not meeting its current duty under international human rights law, our assessment is that Indonesia has a very long way to go to meet its immediate economic and social rights duty.

Source: 2017 – Human Rights Measurement Initiative



Labour

ITUC

5No guarantee of rights

Ranking countries on the degree of respect for workers’ rights.

Source: 2019 – International Trade Union Confederation



Labour

GSI

74 /167 – Country Rank

The Prevalence Index Rank ranks countries on the relative prevalance of modern slavery. A higher rank indicates a higher prevalence.

Source: 2018 – Global Slavery Index


The Vulnerability to Modern Slavery (lower is better)

Source: 2018 – Global Slavery Index



Conflict & Security

HIIK

The Conflict Barometer ranks intra-, inter-, trans- and substate conflicts worldwide based on intesity, including violent as well as non-violent conflicts. The violent conflicts are differentiated between violent crises, limited wars or wars.

Source: 2019 – Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research



Conflict & Security

IEP

High state of peace
49 /163 – Country Rank

The Global Peace Index (GPI) measures more than just the presence or absence of war. It captures the absence of violence or the fear of violence across three domains: Safety and Security, Ongoing Conflict, and Militarisation.

Source: 2020 – The Institute for Economics & Peace



Human Rights

Freedom House

61 /100
Partly Free – Status

Freedom House rates people’s access to political rights and civil liberties.

Source: 2020 – Freedom House



Human Rights

FSI

67.8 /120 – Score
96 /178 – Country Rank

The Human Rights and Rule of Law Indicator by the FSI considers the relationship between the state and its population insofar as fundamental human rights are protected and freedoms are observed and respected.

Source: 2020 – Fragile State Index



Governance

WGI

Control of corruption captures perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as “capture” of the state by elites and private interests.

Source: 2019 – The WorldBank's Worldwide Governance Indicator


Regulatory quality captures perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development.

Source: 2019 – The WorldBank's Worldwide Governance Indicator


Rule of law captures perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence.

Source: – The WorldBank's Worldwide Governance Indicator



Governance

Transparency International

40 /100 – Score
85 /198 – Country Rank

The Corruption Perceptions Index scores and ranks countries/territories based on how corrupt a country’s public sector is perceived to be by experts and business executives. It is a composite index, a combination of 13 surveys and assessments of corruption, collected by a variety of reputable institutions. The CPI is the most widely used indicator of corruption worldwide.

Source: 2019 – Transparency International



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Areas of Interest

Indonesia has a CPI score of 40 (0=highly corrupt, 100=very clean) which means the risk of corruption is high. Bribery typically occurs during licensing procedures. Although there have been improvements in recent years, the Indonesian tax and customs administrations are perceived as highly corrupt by many businesses. There is a deeply embedded culture of patronage, where acts of bribery or corruption are often not viewed as corrupt practices by Indonesian authorities. Companies on their part try to avoid the justice system with its complex regulatory and legal environment.

Indonesia is classified as a Tier 2 country in the 2020 trafficking in persons report , which means that the country’s government does not fully meet the Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, but that they are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with these standards.

According to the Freedom House Country List, Indonesia is considered to be “partly free”, which means there is an oppressive regime with regard to civil liberties. Press freedom is limited: the country is ranked 119 out of 180 and scores 36,82 on a scale from 0 (best possible score) to 100 (worst possible score). Restrictions on the freedom of expression and the press include censorship and site blocking.

There is discrimination against women, ethnic and religious minorities, homosexuals, migrants and disabled people. Among significant human rights issue in Indonesia the US Department of State (2019d) reports violence against LGBTI persons and criminalisation at the local level of same-sex sexual activities. Freedom of religion is limited by the enforcement of blasphemy laws and policies that create significant obstacles to construct new worship houses. It is reported that the most targeted religious communities are certain Muslim groups, Christians, believers outside of the six recognised faiths and non-believers.

Indonesia has ratified all eight ILO’s core conventions related to labour, but compliance often falls short with labour inspections being insufficient to enforce the provisions laid out. This lack of access to workers’ rights means workers are exposed to autocratic regimes and unfair labour practices. On the ITUC Global Rights Index (scale 1-5) for freedom of association and workers’ rights, Indonesia score a 5 which means it is among the worst countries in the world to work in. Trade Union leaders from Indonesia were among high profile arbitrary arrests in 2020. The Confederation of Indonesia Trade Unions reported violence by paramilitary forces against workers during a peaceful strike in 2013, where participants demanded an increase in minimum wage and the implementation of social security (MVO Nederland, 2020d). Similar situations have been reported for 2015 with police and armed forces violently attacking and arresting workers that were protesting for being shut out of wage-setting mechanisms.

In 2015, CNV reported that Indonesia has minimum wages above the World Bank’s poverty line of 1.25USD/day. The agreed monthly minimum wages range from 2,7M Indonesia Rupiah in Jakarta to 1,1M IDR in Jawa Tengah. A study by the WageIndicator Foundation in 2016 showed that the minimum wage in some (mostly rural) areas in Indonesia is insufficient compare to the living wage of a typical family.

The Global Compact Network Indonesia was launched in 2006 as a forum that aims to make progress towards human rights, competitive labour, sustainable environment and ethical business practices. Per December 2017, the network counted 77 members. Areas of work in 2017 included human rights, women empowerment, religious freedom and fresh water.

Indonesia is marked as a ‘high risk’ country for terroristic attacks on the Aon Terrorism Risk Map with a score of 4 (1-5 scale with increasing risk). The US Department of State reports in 2019 arbitrary or unlawful killings by government security forces, torture by police, arbitrary detention and political prisoners. Although steps are taken to investigate and prosecute human rights abuses by government officials, impunity remains a concern.