Reports indicate that:
• There is systemic violation of rights to freedom of association and collective bargaining.
• There is some evidence confirming compulsory and/or forced labour, but no incidents were found in the forestry sector.
• There is evidence confirming a high gender wage gap related to discrimination of women in the labour market.
• There is evidence confirming that child labour is widespread in Indonesia, including in the forestry sector; approximately 1.76 million children engaged in prohibited child labour in Indonesia (defined as working children between the ages of 5–12, children aged 13–14 engaged in non-light work activities, and children between 15–18 years engaged in hazardous work). Most were employed in agriculture, including forestry, hunting and fishery.
• The country is signatory to all 8 fundamental ILO Conventions.
• There is evidence that religious minorities including Ahmadis (the Ahmadiyah), Baha’is, Christians, and Shias do not feel adequately protected related to the right to equal opportunity and payment in the labour market.
• Violations of labour rights are not limited to specific sectors.
In Indonesia, the awareness of health and safety at work is low. Working conditions can create unsafe situations, there is no or insufficient inspection of workshops and there are typically no or little safety precautions taken. In 2015, Indonesia ratified the 2006 Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention. In the same year more than 2,300 people died as a consequence of work-related accidents. The government has been accused of placing economic growth over safety by Indonesian labour unions.
OSH is an important issue where a lot of risks have been identified. The most important ones are: lack of hygiene in bathrooms, exposure of workers to chemicals and substances in semi-finished and finished processing (notably glue in lamination processes, paint and sprays for finishing furniture), lack of awareness among workers on such substances and chemicals, non-fatal accidents related to old and unsafe machinery (missing of body parts and burns are seen often), hearing damage, PPEs (generally supplied, but of low quality/effectiveness or workers reluctant to use them), lack of fire safety, and lack of emergency preparedness and response.
Non-compliances with OSH requirements are a common finding in FSC assessment reports for Indonesia. FSC (2019) reports that there has been a high risk in the past that safety requirements are not implemented. Use of safety equipment is not common in Indonesia, with safety equipment being seen by some workers as a complication to their work flow. Sometimes, therefore, employees do not use safety equipment even though the company has provided it. Supervisors and managers commonly do not wear safety equipment; with a reported lack of enforcement or incentives to use it. FSC refers to the 9th Edition of the Newsletter The Monitor (March, 2018) by JPIK (7 years monitoring: Timber Processing Industries in East Java) which shows that violations against OSH standards have been found in East Java between 2011 and 2017. “These violations include the following:
1. There is low compliance with OHS regulations, especially in small-medium scale industries.
2. Fulfillment of OHS standards is carried out only during auditor visits to assess S-LK certificate. Once auditors leave the industry’s premises, workers are reluctant to implement OHS regulations.
These ongoing violations are caused by poor oversight and enforcement of the violations that occur, especially oversight by local government and related agencies”.
Additional reported observations:
• Waste wood is often used for the boiler and in those cases the production unit is also clean. In smaller factories this does not always happen and there is less cleaning.
• The water in the boiler used to heat up the glue of the Plywood process is often boiling hot, also the steam can cause burns if not used properly. Workers have burns from the water, the steam or the boiler itself, due to malpractice.